Posts Tagged 'Operating System'

July 16, 2014

Vyatta Gateway Appliance vs Vyatta Network OS

I hear this question almost daily: “What’s the difference between the Vyatta Network OS offered by SoftLayer and the SoftLayer Vyatta Gateway Appliance?” The honest answer is, from a software perspective, nothing. However from a deployment perspective, there are a couple fundamental differences.

Vyatta Network OS on the SoftLayer Platform

SoftLayer offers customers the ability to spin up different bare metal or virtual server configurations, and choose either the community or subscription edition of the Vyatta Network operating system. The server is deployed like any other host on the SoftLayer platform with a public and private interface placed in the VLANs selected while ordering. Once online, you can route traffic through the Vyatta Network server by changing the default gateway on your hosts to use the Vyatta Network server IP rather than the default gateway. You have the option to configure ingress and egress ACLs for your bare metal or virtual servers that route through the Vyatta Network server. The Vyatta Network server can also be configured as a VPN end point to terminate Internet Protocol Security (IPSEC), Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE), or OpenSSL VPN connections, and securely connect to the SoftLayer Private Network. Sounds great right?

So, how is a Vyatta Network OS server different from a SoftLayer Vyatta Gateway Appliance?

A True Gateway

While it’s true that the Vyatta Gateway Appliance has the same functionality as a server running the Vyatta Network operating system, one of the primary differences is that the Vyatta Gateway Appliance is delivered as a true gateway. You may be asking yourself what that means. It means that the Vyatta Gateway Appliance is the only entry and exit point for traffic on VLANs you associate with it. When you place an order for the Vyatta Gateway Appliance and select your public and private VLANs, the Vyatta Gateway Appliance comes online with its native VLAN for its public and private interfaces in a transit VLAN. The VLANs you selected are trunked to the gateway appliance’s public and private interfaces via an 802.1q trunk setup on the server’s interface switch ports. These VLANs will show up in the customer portal as associated VLANs for the Vyatta Gateway Appliance.

This configuration allows SoftLayer to create an outside, unprotected interface (in the transit VLAN) and an inside, protected interface (on your bare metal server or virtual server VLAN). As part of the configuration, we set up SoftLayer routers to static route all IP space that belongs to the associated VLANs to the Vyatta Gateway Appliance transit VLAN IP address. The servers you have in a VLAN associated with gateway appliance can no longer use the SoftLayer default gateway to route in and out of the VLAN. All traffic must be filtered through the Gateway Appliance, making it a true gateway.

This differs from a server deployed with the Vyatta Network OS because hosts behind the Vyatta Network OS server can route around it by simply changing their default gateway back to the SoftLayer default gateway.

N-Tier Architecture

Another difference is that the gateway appliance gives customers the option to route multiple public and private VLANs in the same pod (delineated by an FCR/BCR pair) through the device. This allows you to use the gateway appliance to create granular segmentation between different VLANs within your environment, and set up a traditional tiered infrastructure environment with ingress and egress rules between the tiers.

A server running Vyatta Network OS cannot be configured this way. The Vyatta Network OS server is placed in a single public and private VLAN, and there is no option to associate different VLANs with the server.

I hope this helps clear up the confusion around Vyatta on the SoftLayer platform. As always, if you have any questions or concerns about any of SoftLayer’s products or services, the sales and sales engineering teams are happy to help.

-Kelly

February 20, 2012

Tips and Tricks - Remote Audio Over RDP in Windows 2008

I was working on my server the other night, and I found myself needing to get sound from my Windows 2008 box through an RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) connection. Because we have a huge customer base with Windows 2008 installed now, I figured there may be someone else out there that would like to be able to hear sounds from their server on their local computer when connected, so I put together a quick walkthrough with how I got it to work:

Configuring Your Server

  1. Open Windows Services (Start -> Run -> Services.msc)
  2. Change the properties of the Windows Audio Endpoint Service and Windows Audio Service to "Automatic". If the services are not already started, you can manually start them at this time.
  3. Open Terminal Services ( Start -> Run -> tsconfig.msc)
  4. Right-click on the RDP-TCP connection and bring up its properties. Go to the "Client Settings" and make sure that on "Redirection Audio" is not disabled.
  5. Fully log out and log back into the RDP connection to the server. You will see a balloon error on your speaker icon that states "No Audio Output Device is installed."

Making Registry Changes

  1. You will now need to back up your registry and some registry changes.
  2. I want to reiterate the instruction to back up your registry ... As with most technical guides/walkthroughs, SoftLayer will not be held liable for any corruptions that may result from you attempting these changes. The next two steps will show how to quickly back up your registry.
  3. Log into your server on an account with Administrator rights, and open regedit (Start -> Run -> regedit)
  4. Export the current registry (from the "File" menu) and copy it to a location off of your server so you have it backed up.
  5. Locate the following key: HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\AudioEngine\AudioProcessingObjects. This will contain several subkeys all each named with a GUID.
  6. Click on each subkey, then right-click and select "Permissions." You will then click on the "Advanced" button and the "Owner" tab. The current owner should be listed as "TrustedInstaller."
  7. Select the Administrative account and/or group from the list and click "OK" to change the ownership.
  8. Select the account you just chose and give it "Full Control," then click "OK."
  9. In the "Detail" box of each subkey, double-click on the DWORD value "MinOutputConnections" and change it from 1 to 0, then click "OK."
  10. Once you have done this for each subkey in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\AudioEngine\AudioProcessingObjects, you can close regedit and restart the Windows Audio and Windows Audio Endpoint services.

Configuring Your RDP Client

Now that you have everything ready on the server, you just need to make sure your RDP client recognizes the audio. Log off of the server so you can configure your RDP client. Open RDP, go to the "Options" menu, and under "Local Resources," select "Configure Remote Audio Settings." Select "Play on this Computer," and hit "OK." Voila! You now should be able to hear sound from your Windows 2008 RDP connection.

-Bill

February 13, 2012

Logic Challenge: SoftLayer Server Rack Riddle

After I spent a little time weaving together a story in response to SKinman's "Choose Your Own Adventure" puzzle (which you can read in the comments section), I was reminded of another famous logic puzzle that I came across a few years ago. Because it was begging to be SoftLayer-ized, I freshened it up to challenge our community.

In 1962, Life International magazine published a logic puzzle that was said to be so difficult that it could only be solved by two percent of the world's population. It's been attributed to Einstein, and apparently Lewis Carroll is given a claim to it as well, but regardless of the original author, it's a great brain workout.

If you haven't tried a puzzle like this before, don't get discouraged and go Googling for the answer. You're given every detail you need to answer the question at the end ... Take your time and think about how the components are interrelated. If you've solved this puzzle before, this iteration might only be light mental calisthenics, but with its new SoftLayer twist, it should still be fun:

Einstein's SoftLayer Riddle

The Scenario: You're in a SoftLayer data center. You walk up to a server rack and you see five servers in the top five slots on the rack. Each of the five servers has a distinct hard drive configuration, processor type, operating system, control panel (or absence thereof) and add-on storage. No two servers in this rack are the same in any of those aspects.

  • The CentOS6 operating system is being run on the Xeon 3230 server.
  • The Dual Xeon 5410 server is racked next to (immediately above or below) the server running the Red Hat 6 operating system.
  • The Dual Xeon 5610 server uses 50GB of CloudLayer Storage as its add-on storage.
  • The Quad Xeon 7550 server has no control panel.
  • The Cent OS 5 operating system is racked immediately below the server running the Red Hat 5 operating system.
  • The server using 80GB NAS add-on storage is racked next to (immediately above or below) the server with two 100GB SSD hard drives.
  • The server running the Red Hat 5 operating system uses Parallels Virtuozzo (3VPS) as a control panel.
  • The server running the Windows 2008 operating system has two 100GB SSD hard drives.
  • The server using Plesk 9 as a control panel is in the middle space in the five-server set in the rack.
  • The top server in the rack is the Dual Xeon 5410 server.
  • The Xeon 3450 server has two 147GB 10K RPM SA-SCSI hard drives.
  • The server using 20GB EVault as its add-on storage has one 250GB SATA II hard drive.
  • The server with four 600GB 15K RPM SA-SCSI hard drives is next to (immediately above or below) the server using 100GB iSCSI SAN add-on storage.
  • The server using cPanel as a control panel has two 2TB SATA II hard drives.
  • The server with four 600GB 15K RPM SA-SCSI hard drives is racked next to (immediately above or below) the server using Plesk 10 (Unlimited) as a control panel.
  • One server will use a brand new, soon-to-be-announced product offering as its add-on storage.

Question: What is the monthly cost of the server that will be using our super-secret new product offering for its add-on storage?

Use the SoftLayer Shopping Cart to come up with your answer. You can assume that the server has a base configuration (unless specifically noted in the clues above), that SoftLayer's promotions are not used, and that the least expensive version of the control panel is being used for any control panel with several price points. You won't be able to include the cost of the add-on storage (yet), so just provide the base configuration cost of that server in one of our US-based data centers with all of the specs you are given.

Bonus Question: If you ordered all five of those servers, how long would it take for them to be provisioned for you?

Submit your answers via comment, and we'll publish the comments in about a week so other people have a chance to answer it without the risk of scrolling down and seeing spoilers.

-@khazard

October 24, 2008

Pushing the Microsoft Kool-Aid

Recently on one of our technical forums I contributed to a discussion about the Windows operating system. One of our director’s saw the post and thought it might be of interest to readers of the InnerLayer as well. The post focused on the pros and cons of Windows 2008 from the viewpoint of a systems / driver engineer (aka me). If you have no technical background, or interest in Microsoft operating system offerings, what follows probably will not be of interest to you—just the same, here is my two cents.

Microsoft is no different than any other developer when it comes to writing software--they get better with each iteration. There is not a person out there who would argue that the world of home computers would have been better off if none of us ever progressed beyond MS-DOS 1.0. Not to say there is anything wrong with MS-DOS. I love it. And still use it occasionally doing embedded work. But my point is that while there have certainly been some false starts along the way (can you say BOB), Microsoft's operating systems generally get better with each release.

So why not go out and update everything the day the latest and greatest OS hits the shelves? Because as most of you know, there are bugs that have to get worked out. To add to that, the more complex the OS gets, the more bugs there are and the more time it takes to shake those bugs out. Windows Server 2008 is no different. In my experience there are still a number of troublesome issues with W2K8 that need to be addressed. Just to name a few:

  • UAC (user access control) - these are the security features that give us so much headache. I'm not saying we don't need the added security. I'm just saying this is a new arena for MS and they still have a lot to learn. After clicking YES, I REALLY REALLY REALLY WANT TO INSTALL SAID APPLICATION for the 40th time in a day, most administrators will opt to disable UAC, thereby thwarting the added security benefits entirely. If I were running this team at MS I'd require all my developers to take a good hard look at LINUX.
  • UMD (user mode drivers) - the idea of running a device driver, or a portion of a device driver, in the restricted and therefore safe user memory of the kernel is a great idea in terms of improving OS reliability. I've seen numbers suggesting that as many as 90% of hard OS failures are caused by faulty third-party drivers mucking around in kernel mode. However implementing user mode drivers adds some new complexities if hardware manufacturers don't want to take a performance hit and from my experience not all hardware vendors are up to speed yet.
  • Driver Verification - this to me is the most troublesome and annoying issue right now with the 64-bit only version of W2K8. Only kernel mode software that has been certified in the MS lab is allowed to execute on a production boot of the OS. Period. Since I am writing this on the SoftLayer blog, I am assuming most of you are not selecting hardware and drivers to run on your boxes. We are handling that for you. But let me tell you it’s a pain in the butt to only run third party drivers that have been through the MS quality lab. Besides not being able to run drivers we have developed in house it is impossible for us to apply a patch from even the largest of hardware vendors without waiting on that patch to get submitted to MS and then cleared for the OS. A good example was a problem we ran into with an Intel Enet driver. Here at SoftLayer we found a bug in the driver and after a lot of back and forth with Intel's Engineers we had a fix in hand. But that fix could not be applied to the W2K8 64-bit boxes until weeks later when the fix finally made it from Intel to MS and back to Intel and us again. Very frustrating.

Okay, so now that you see some of the reasons NOT to use MS Windows Server 2008 what are some of the reasons it’s at least worth taking a look at? Well here are just a few that I know of from some of the work I have done keeping up to speed with the latest driver model.

  • Improved Memory Management – W2K8 issues fewer and larger disk I/O's than its 2003 predecessor. This applies to standard disk fetching, but also paging and even read-aheads. On Windows 2003 it is not uncommon for disk writes to happen in blocks
  • Improved Data Reliability - Everyone knows how painful disk corruption can be. And everyone knows taking a server offline on a regular basis to run chkdsk and repair disk corruption is slow. One of the ideal improvements in terms of administering a websever is that W2K8 employs a technology called NTFS self-healing. This new feature built into the file system detects disk corruption on the fly and quarantines that sector, allowing system worker-threads to execute chkdsk like repairs on the corrupted area without taking the rest of the volume offline.
  • Scalability - The W2K8 kernel introduces a number of streamlining factors that greatly enhance system wide performance. A minor but significant change to the operating system's low level timer code, combined with new I/O completion handling, and more efficient thread pool, offer marked improvement on load-heavy server applications. I have read documentation supporting claims that the minimization in CPU synchronization alone results directly in a 30% gain on the number of concurrent Windows 2008 users over 2003. That's not to say once you throw in all the added security and take the user mode driver hit you won't be looking at 2003 speeds. I'm just pointing out hard kernel-level improvements that can be directly quantified by multiplying your resources against the number of saved CPU cycles.

Alright, no need to beat a dead horse. My hope was if nothing else to muddy the waters a bit. The majority of posts I read on our internal forums seemed to recommend avoiding W2K8 like the plague. I'm only suggesting while it is certainly not perfect, there are some benefits to at least taking it for a test drive. Besides, with SoftLayer's handy dandy portal driven OS deployment, in the amount of time it took you to read all my rambling you might have already installed Windows Server 2008 and tried it out for yourself. Okay, maybe that's a bit of an exaggeration. But still...you get the idea!

-William

Categories: 
July 24, 2008

Here's to Bill

Bill Gates' final day as an employee of Microsoft was June 27, 2008. Let's all raise our virtual glasses in a toast! Or maybe a virtual fist-bump is better - here you go: III!

I had intended to type this up in time for Mr. Gates' last day, but just simply didn't have time. This marks a historic change at the software behemoth in Washington. Love him or hate him (and there are many people on each side), few people truly realize the impact he has had on the world as we know it.

I love the fact that in America, you can get a crazy and creative idea and run with it. Gates realized that Intel's 8080 chip released in April 1974 was the first affordable chip that could run BASIC in a computer that could be small enough to be classified as a "personal" computer. Then he read an article in the January '75 issue of Popular Electronics about a microcomputer called the Altair 8800 made by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), which ran on an Intel 8080. Realizing that he had to seize the moment because the timing would never be right again, Gates took a leave of absence as a student at Harvard and contacted MITS about developing a BASIC interpreter for that machine. He collaborated with Paul Allen to prepare demo software and close the deal, then he and Paul Allen formed a company named "Micro-soft." The hyphen was dropped in 1976.

Can we imagine what our world would be like had Gates missed reading that magazine in January ‘75? Or if he had decided to finish school and become a lawyer as his parents had hoped? I can't imagine what technology I'd be using to produce documents like this today if Gates and Allen didn't follow through on their crazy idea in 1975.

To get an idea of how deeply Bill Gates has influenced us today, just try either running a business or doing your job without interacting with a computer. If it's not impossible, it's very very difficult at best. Next, try running the computers for your business without ANY Microsoft products. Again, this is difficult but not totally impossible. Then, try interacting with other businesses that use Microsoft products. If you're then successful doing that, think of how many of your daily activities involve a Microsoft product.

I actually worked for a boss in the mid-90's who hated Microsoft. He ran IBM OS/2 operating systems and non-Microsoft applications (Word Perfect, Quattro Pro spreadsheets, etc.). He didn't want to be reminded that Gates originally helped develop OS/2 in partnership with IBM. When IBM dropped support for OS/2, my boss capitulated and migrated to Windows.

At SoftLayer, we use and support a lot of non-Microsoft products. But we couldn't do what we do today without Microsoft products, and many of our customers demand Microsoft products.
In typical American entrepreneurial fashion, SoftLayer started with some semi-crazy ideas to connect the dots between different products in creative ways that had not been previously done. We will do well to have a fraction of the impact that Bill Gates has made.

-Gary

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