Posts Tagged 'Sticky Footer'

November 6, 2012

Tips and Tricks - Pure CSS Sticky Footers

By now, if you've seen my other blog posts, you know that I'm fascinated with how much JavaScript has evolved and how much you can do with jQuery these days. I'm an advocate of working smarter, not harder, and that maxim knows no coding language limits. In this post, I want to share a pure CSS solution that allows for "sticky" footers on a web page. In comparing several different techniques to present this functionality, I found that all of the other routes were overkill when it came to processing time and resource usage.

Our objective is simple: Make the footer of our web page stay at the bottom even if the page's content area is shorter than the user's browser window.

This, by far, is one of my *favorite* things to do. It makes the web layout so much more appealing and creates a very professional feel. I ended up kicking myself the very first time I tried to add this functionality to a project early in my career (ten years ago ... already!?) when I found out just how easy it was. I take solace in knowing that I'm not alone, though ... A quick search for "footer stick bottom" still yields quite a few results from fellow developers who are wrestling with the same frustrating experience I did. If you're in that boat, fear no more! We're going to your footers in shape in a snap.

Here's a diagram of the problem:

CSS Footer

Unfortunately, a lot of people try to handle it with setting a fixed height to the content which would push the footer down. This may work when YOU view it, but there are several different browser window heights, resolutions and variables that make this an *extremely* unreliable solution (notice the emphasis on the word "extremely" ... this basically means "don't do it").

We need a dynamic solution that is able to adapt on the fly to the height of a user's browser window regardless if the resize it, have Firebug open, use a unique resolution or just have a really, really weird browser!

Let's take a look at what the end results should look like:

CSS Footer

To make this happen, let's get our HTML structure in place first:

<div id="page">
 
      <div id="header"> </div>
 
      <div id="main"> </div>
 
      <div id="footer"> </div>
 
</div>

It's pretty simple so far ... Just a skeleton of a web page. The page div contains ALL elements and is immediately below the

tags in the page code hierarchy. The header div is going to be our top content, the main div will include all of our content, and the footer div is all of our copyrights and footer links.

Let's start by coding the CSS for the full page:

Html, body {
      Padding: 0;
      Margin: 0;
      Height: 100%;
}

Adding a 100% height allows us to set the height of the main div later. The height of a div can only be as tall as the parent element encasing it. Now let's see how the rest of our ids are styled:

#page {
      Min-height: 100%;
      position:relative;
}
 
#main {
      Padding-bottom: 75px;   /* This value is the height of your footer */
}
 
#footer {
      Position: absolute;
      Width: 100%;
      Bottom: 0;
      Height: 75px;  /* This value is the height of your footer */
}

These rules position the footer "absolutely" at the bottom of the page, and because we set #page to min-height: 100%, it ensures that #main is exactly the height of the browser's viewing space. One of the best things about this little trick is that it's compliant with all major current browsers — including Firefox, Chrome, Safari *AND* Internet Explorer (after a little tweak). For Internet Explorer to not throw a fit, we need concede that IE doesn't recognize min-height as a valid property, so we have to add Height: 100%; to #page:

#page {
      Min-height: 100%;  /* for all other browsers */
      height: 100%;  /* for IE */
      position:relative;
}

If the user does not have a modern, popular browser, it's still okay! Though their old browser won't detect the magic we've done here, it'll fail gracefully, and the footer will be positioned directly under the content, as it would have been without our little CSS trick.

I can't finish this blog without mentioning my FAVORITE perk of this trick: Should you not have a specially designed mobile version of your site, this trick even works on smart phones!

-Cassandra

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